22 February 2015

Basics Of Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) means different things to different people. Some believe that AI is synonymous with any form of intelligence achieved by nonliving systems; they maintain that it is not important if this intelligent behavior is not arrived at via the same mechanisms on which humans rely. For others, AI systems must be able to mimic human intelligence. 

No one would argue with the premise that to study AI or to implement AI systems, it is helpful if we first understand how humans accomplish intelligent behavior; that is, we must understand activities that are deemed intelligent in an intellectual, scientific, psychological, and technical sense. 

For example, if we want to build a robot capable of walking like a human, then we must first understand the process of walking from each of those perspectives; people, however, do not accomplish locomotion by constantly stating and following a prescribed set of formal rules that explain how to take steps. In fact, the more human experts are asked to explain how they achieve their level of performance in any discipline or endeavor, the more they are likely to fail. For example, when Israeli fighter pilots were asked to explain their prowess for flying, their performance actually declined.

Expert performance stems not from constant, conscious analysis but from the subconscious levels of the mind. Imagine trying to drive on an expressway during rush hour and needing to consciously weigh each vehicle-control decision.

Consider the story of the professor of mechanics and the unicyclist. If the professor is asked to cite principles of mechanics as he attempts to ride the unicycle and bases his success on the unicycle on knowing those principles, he is doomed to failure. Likewise, if the unicyclist attempts to learn the laws of mechanics and apply them while he performs his craft, he, too, is destined for failure and perhaps a tragic accident. 

Root of Artificial Intelligence
The point is, human skill and expertise in many disciplines seems to be developed and stored in the subconscious, rather than being available upon explicit request from memory or first principles.
What is AI?

AI is not natural but is man-made. the term artificial means synthetic (i.e., man-made) and generally has a negative connotation as being a lesser form of a real thing. Artificial objects are often superior to real or natural objects, however. Consider, for example, an artificial flower, an object made of silk and wire and arranged to resemble a bud or blossom.

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