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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

Payment Cards Complete List

In this post, I have shared top payment cards, which are alternatives to money. The list is Credit, Debit, Fleet, Co-branded, Contactless cards.  

different credit cards

Types of Plastic cards

Many plastic cards are present to carry out financial transactions. The purpose is to buy items within the limit prescribed by banks to the cardholder. Two types of cards in this category are Magnetic-stripe and Chip cards.

Credit cards

In today's world, all banks issue credit cards with CHIP and PIN. After entering the PIN by the cardholder, the transaction kicks in for further processing.

Types of Credit cards

  1. Security deposited cards: The cardholder should pay some front money to get this type of card. When the cardholder goes unpaid, then the card issuer pay from it.
  2. Credit Union Cards: The private Credit Union owners issue these cards. They usually charge less than what banks will.
  3. Pre-paid cards: They technically equal to Debit cards. They pre-loaded with a certain amount. You can use the cards until the amount bleeds.

Debit (ATM, Cash) card

  • It is a relatively new method, which is different from a credit card. The money deducts directly from the bank account linked to the card.
  • A debit card seems to be more dangerous compared to a credit card because the debit card is directly linked to the bank checking account and usually allows ATM cash withdrawals.
  • On the other hand, it is more protected by the required two-factor authentication (PIN plus card itself). The real dangerous element of many branded debit cards is that they can use as credit cards - without entering the PIN.

Offline-Debit Cards

They do not require a PIN. Also, these cards differ from Debit Cards.

Gift cards

  1. It is similar to a debit card but usually does not have the protection provided by a PIN. The gift card, usually not linked to a bank account and "contains" fixed amounts of funds.
  2. The card itself does not hold any financial information—the point-of-sale (POS) terminal communicates with the gift card provider during payment transactions to get authorization.
  3. Gift cards are less dangerous than credit and debit cards because the balance is lesser.

Also read: Credit cards domain-knowledge

Fleet (or proprietary) Card

  • This card is the same as a credit card. The difference is you can use it only at particular locations (usually gas stations and convenience stores) and for purchasing only limited types of merchandise (such as fuel and other automobile items).
  • Fleet cards, even though often issued by major card brands, they are less prone to bad guys because they cannot use for ATM withdrawal, online shopping, or purchases in department or grocery stores.

Co-brand cards

  1. A co-branded card is a retail merchant credit card issued in partnership with a specific network processor.
  2. Co-branded cards, usually branded with the logo of the network processor and retailer.

Private label credit card

The purpose of this card is you need to use it at a specific store - these cards are managed by banks, sometimes by the store financial department.

Cash Cards

These are Debit cards, Payroll cards, Gift cards, and Pre-paid Cards. Credit cards do not come under Cash Cards.

Closed Loop Cards

  1. You can find the company logo printed on the cards.  
  2. These cards don't contain Master or Visa card logos.


  1. This feature applies to both credit and debit cards.
  2. No need to swipe. A touch to the POS machine is enough.
  3. These cards work on the principle of NFC.


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