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The Ultimate Cheat Sheet On Hadoop

Top 20 frequently asked questions to test your Hadoop knowledge given in the below Hadoop cheat sheet. Try finding your own answers and match the answers given here.




Question #1 

You have written a MapReduce job that will process 500 million input records and generate 500 million key-value pairs. The data is not uniformly distributed. Your MapReduce job will create a significant amount of intermediate data that it needs to transfer between mappers and reducers which is a potential bottleneck. A custom implementation of which of the following interfaces is most likely to reduce the amount of intermediate data transferred across the network?



A. Writable
B. WritableComparable
C. InputFormat
D. OutputFormat
E. Combiner
F. Partitioner
Ans: e




Question #2 

Where is Hive metastore stored by default ?


A. In HDFS
B. In client machine in the form of a flat file.
C. In client machine in a derby database
D. In lib directory of HADOOP_HOME, and requires HADOOP_CLASSPATH to be modified.
Ans: c




Question…

Payment Cards: Different Types Complete List

Currently many plastic cards present in the market to carry financial transactions.

I am sharing all the payment cards,  popular in the payment industry, in this post.

Below is the list of Credit, Debit, Gift,  cobranded, Fleet cards of different types.
different credit cards

Top plastic or credit cards

  • The purpose of this card is to buy any item within the limit prescribed by banks to the cardholder. These cards can have both Magnetic stripe and Chip cards.
  • Nowadays all banks are issuing credit cards with CHIP and PIN. After entering the PIN by the cardholder, then transaction starts for further processing.

Types of Credit cards

  • Secure credit cards: Cardholder deposits a certain amount of money. When the cardholder goes unpaid, then the card issuer pay from it. 
  • Credit Union Cards: The private Credit Union owners issue credit cards. They usually charge less than what banks will charge 
  • Pre-paid cards: They technically equal to Debit cards. They pre-loaded with a certain amount, that amount, you can use your cards 

Debit (ATM, Cash) card

  • It is a relatively new method of payment. It is different from a credit card because the debit cardholder pays with the money available in their bank account, which is debited immediately in real time. 
  • A debit card seems to be more dangerous compared to a credit card because the debit card is directly linked to the bank checking account and usually allows ATM cash withdrawals. 
  • On the other hand, it is more protected by the required two-factor authentication (PIN number plus card itself). The real dangerous element of many branded debit cards is that they can be processed as credit cards, without entering the PIN.

Offline-Debit Cards

They do not require a PIN. Also, these cards differ from normal Debit Cards.

Gift cards

  1. It is similar to a debit card but usually does not have the protection provided by a PIN. The gift card is not linked to a bank account and normally "contains" fixed amounts of funds. 
  2. The card itself does not hold any financial information—the point-of-sale (POS) terminal communicates with the gift card provider during payment transactions in order to get authorization. 
  3. Gift cards are less dangerous than credit and debit cards because only fixed, often very limited, amounts of money can be stolen. 
Also read: Credit cards domain knowledge

Fleet (or proprietary) Card

  • This card is similar to a credit card but can be used only at particular locations (usually gas stations and convenience stores) and for purchasing only limited types of merchandise (such as fuel and other automobile items). 
  • Fleet cards, even though often issued by major card brands, are less interesting to "bad guys" because they cannot be used for ATM withdrawal, online shopping, or purchases in department or grocery stores.

Co-brand cards

  • A co-branded card is a retail merchant credit card that is issued in partnership with a specific network processor. 
  • Co-branded cards are branded with the logo of the network processor and retailer. 

Private label credit card

It is a store-branded credit card that is intended for use at a specific store. 
 
A private label credit card is a type of revolving credit plan managed by a bank or commercial finance company for either retail or wholesale manufacturers, such as department and specialty stores

Cash Cards

These are Debit cards, Payroll cards, Gift cards, and Pre-paid cards. The credit cards do not come under Cash Cards.

Closed Loop Cards

These cards have imprinted particular company logo. You can only utilize these cards only in that company.

These cards do not contain Master or Visa cards logos

References:

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