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The Ultimate Cheat Sheet On Hadoop

Top 20 frequently asked questions to test your Hadoop knowledge given in the below Hadoop cheat sheet. Try finding your own answers and match the answers given here.

Question #1 

You have written a MapReduce job that will process 500 million input records and generate 500 million key-value pairs. The data is not uniformly distributed. Your MapReduce job will create a significant amount of intermediate data that it needs to transfer between mappers and reducers which is a potential bottleneck. A custom implementation of which of the following interfaces is most likely to reduce the amount of intermediate data transferred across the network?

A. Writable
B. WritableComparable
C. InputFormat
D. OutputFormat
E. Combiner
F. Partitioner
Ans: e

Question #2 

Where is Hive metastore stored by default ?

B. In client machine in the form of a flat file.
C. In client machine in a derby database
D. In lib directory of HADOOP_HOME, and requires HADOOP_CLASSPATH to be modified.
Ans: c


5 Essential Things for Virtual Private Cloud

Private cloud is particularly assigned to a company using VPN. The VPN is called virtual private network. This post tells you not only features but also benefits.

What is virtual private cloud:

The concept of a virtual private cloud (VPC) has emerged recently. In a typical approach, a VPC connects an organization's information technology (IT) resources to a dynamically allocated subset of a cloud provider's resources via a virtual private network (VPN).
Private cloud

  1. Organizational IT controls are then applied to the collective resources to meet required service levels. As a result, in addition to improved TCO, the model promises organisations direct control of security, reliability and other attributes they have been accustomed to with conventional, internal data centres.
  2. The VPC concept is both fundamental and transformation. First, it proposes a distinct abstraction of public resources combined with internal resources that provides equivalent functionality and assurance to a physical collection of resources operated for a single organisation, wherein the public resources may be shared with many other organizations that are also simultaneously being provided their own VPCs.
  3. Second, the concept provides an actionable path for an organization to incorporate cloud computing into its IT infrastructure. Once the organization is managing its existing resources as a private cloud (i.e., with virtualization and standard interfaces for resource management), the organization can then seamlessly extend its management domain to encompass external resources hosted by a cloud provider and connected over a VPN.

How organization will benefit with Virtual private cloud model:

  • From the point of view of the organization, the path to a VPC model is relatively straightforward. In principle, it should be no more complicated, say, than the introduction of VPNs or virtual machines into the organization's IT infrastructure, because the abstraction preserves existing interfaces and service levels, and isolates the new implementation details.
  • However, as with introduction of any type of abstraction, the provider's point of view is where the complexities arise.
  • Indeed, the real challenge of VPCs is not whether organizations will embrace them once they meet organizational IT requirements, but how to meet those requirements — especially operational autonomy and flexibility — without sacrificing the efficiency that motivated the interest in the cloud to begin with.


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