Skip to main content

Featured post

8 Top Data Science Platform Developers in the World

Top data science tools and platforms providers across the world. Useful information for data science and data analytics developers.

Data Science is a combination of multiple skills. AI and Machine Learning are part of data science. You can create AI and Machine Learning products with data. 

Related Posts

Top Skills You Need for Data Science CareerData Science Sample Project an Example

Top Daily Use LINUX Commands for Programmers

Top Daily Use LINUX Commands for Programmers
#Top Daily Use LINUX Commands for Programmers:
1.1 What is a command shell?
A program that interprets commands Allows a user to execute commands by typing them manually at a terminal, or automatically in programs called shell scripts. A shell is not an operating system. It is a way to interface with the operating system and run commands.

1.2 What is BASH?
BASH = Bourne Again SHell
Bash is a shell written as a free replacement to the standard Bourne Shell (/bin/sh) originally written by Steve Bourne for UNIX systems. It has all of the features of the original Bourne Shell, plus additions that make it easier to program with and use from the command line. Since it is Free Software, it has been adopted as the default shell on most Linux systems.

1.3 How is BASH different from the DOS command prompt?
Case Sensitivity: In Linux/UNIX, commands and filenames are case sensitive, meaning that typing “EXIT” instead of the proper “exit” is a mistake.
“\” vs. “/”: In DOS, the forward-slash “/” is the command argument delimiter, while the backslash “\” is a directory separator. In Linux/UNIX, the “/” is the directory separator, and the “\” is an escape character. More about these special characters in a minute!

Filenames: The DOS world uses the “eight dot three” filename convention, meaning that all files followed a format that allowed up to 8 characters in the filename, followed by a period (“dot”), followed by an option extension, up to 3 characters long (e.g. FILENAME.TXT). In UNIX/Linux, there is no such thing as a file extension. Periods can be placed at any part of the filename, and “extensions” may be interpreted differently by all programs, or not at all.

1.4 Special Characters
Before we continue to learn about Linux shell commands, it is important to know that there are
many symbols and characters that the shell interprets in special ways. This means that certain
typed characters: a) cannot be used in certain situations, b) may be used to perform special
operations, or, c) must be “escaped” if you want to use them in a normal way.

Character Description
\ Escape character. If you want to reference a special character, you must “escape” it
with a backslash first.
Example: touch /tmp/filename\*
/ Directory separator, used to separate a string of directory names.
Example: /usr/src/linux
. Current directory. Can also “hide” files when it is the first character in a filename.
.. Parent directory
~ User's home directory
* Represents 0 or more characters in a filename, or by itself, all files in a directory.
Example: pic*2002 can represent the files pic2002, picJanuary2002,
picFeb292002, etc.
? Represents a single character in a filename.
Example: hello?.txt can represent hello1.txt, helloz.txt, but not
hello22.txt
[ ] Can be used to represent a range of values, e.g. [0-9], [A-Z], etc.
Example: hello[0-2].txt represents the names hello0.txt,
hello1.txt, and hello2.txt
| “Pipe”. Redirect the output of one command into another command.
Example: ls | more
> Redirect output of a command into a new file. If the file already exists, over-write it.
Example: ls > myfiles.txt
>> Redirect the output of a command onto the end of an existing file.
Example: echo “Mary 555-1234” >> phonenumbers.txt
< Redirect a file as input to a program.
Example: more < phonenumbers.txt
; Command separator. Allows you to execute multiple commands on a single line.
Example: cd /var/log ; less messages
&& Command separator as above, but only runs the second command if the first one
finished without errors.
Example: cd /var/logs && less messages
& Execute a command in the background, and immediately get your shell back.
Example: find / -name core > /tmp/corefiles.txt &

1.5 Executing Commands
The Command PATH:

Most common commands are located in your shell's “PATH”, meaning that you can just
type the name of the program to execute it.
Example: Typing “ ls” will execute the “ ls” command.
Your shell's “PATH” variable includes the most common program locations, such as
/bin, /usr/bin, /usr/X11R6/bin, and others.
To execute commands that are not in your current PATH, you have to give the complete
location of the command.
Examples: /home/bob/myprogram
./program (Execute a program in the current directory)
~/bin/program (Execute program from a personal bin directory)
Command Syntax
Commands can be run by themselves, or you can pass in additional arguments to make them do
different things. Typical command syntax can look something like this:
command [-argument] [-argument] [--argument] [file]
Examples: ls List files in current directory
ls -l Lists files in “long” format
ls -l --color As above, with colourized output
cat filename Show contents of a file
cat -n filename Show contents of a file, with line numbers

2.0 Getting Help
When you're stuck and need help with a Linux command, help is usually only a few keystrokes
away! Help on most Linux commands is typically built right into the commands themselves,
available through online help programs (“man pages” and “info pages”), and of course online.

2.1 Using a Command's Built-In Help
Many commands have simple “help” screens that can be invoked with special command flags.
These flags usually look like “-h” or “--help”.
Example: grep --help

2.2 Online Manuals: “Man Pages”
The best source of information for most commands can be found in the online manual pages,
known as “man pages” for short. To read a command's man page, type “man command”.
Examples: man ls Get help on the “ls” command.
man man A manual about how to use the manual!
To search for a particular word within a man page, type “/word”. To quit from a man page, just
type the “Q” key.
Sometimes, you might not remember the name of Linux command and you need to search for it.
For example, if you want to know how to change a file's permissions, you can search the man page
descriptions for the word “permission” like this:
man -k permission
If you look at the output of this command, you will find a line that looks something like:
chmod (1) - change file access permissions
Now you know that “chmod” is the command you were looking for. Typing “man chmod” will
show you the chmod command's manual page!

2.3 Info Pages
Some programs, particularly those released by the Free Software Foundation, use info pages as
their main source of online documentation. Info pages are similar to man page, but instead of
being displayed on one long scrolling screen, they are presented in shorter segments with links to
other pieces of information. Info pages are accessed with the “info” command, or on some
Linux distributions, “pinfo” (a nicer info browser).
For example: info df Loads the “df” info page.

3.0 Navigating the Linux Filesystem
The Linux filesystem is a tree-like hierarchy hierarchy of directories and files. At the base of the
filesystem is the “/” directory, otherwise known as the “root” (not to be confused with the root
user). Unlike DOS or Windows filesystems that have multiple “roots”, one for each disk drive, the
Linux filesystem mounts all disks somewhere underneath the / filesystem. The following table
describes many of the most common Linux directories.

3.1 The Linux Directory Layout
Directory Description
The nameless base of the filesystem. All other directories, files, drives, and
devices are attached to this root. Commonly (but incorrectly) referred to as
the “slash” or “/” directory. The “/” is just a directory separator, not a
directory itself.
/bin Essential command binaries (programs) are stored here (bash, ls, mount,
tar, etc.)
/boot Static files of the boot loader.
/dev Device files. In Linux, hardware devices are acceessd just like other files, and
they are kept under this directory.
/etc Host-specific system configuration files.
/home Location of users' personal home directories (e.g. /home/susan).
/lib Essential shared libraries and kernel modules.
/proc Process information pseudo-filesystem. An interface to kernel data structures.
/root The root (superuser) home directory.
/sbin Essential system binaries (fdisk, fsck, init, etc).
/tmp Temporary files. All users have permission to place temporary files here.
/usr The base directory for most shareable, read-only data (programs, libraries,
documentation, and much more).
/usr/bin Most user programs are kept here (cc, find, du, etc.).
/usr/include Header files for compiling C programs.
/usr/lib Libraries for most binary programs.
/usr/local “Locally” installed files. This directory only really matters in environments
where files are stored on the network. Locally-installed files go in
/usr/local/bin, /usr/local/lib, etc.). Also often used for
software packages installed from source, or software not officially shipped
with the distribution.
/usr/sbin Non-vital system binaries (lpd, useradd, etc.)
/usr/share Architecture-independent data (icons, backgrounds, documentation, terminfo,
man pages, etc.).
/usr/src Program source code. E.g. The Linux Kernel, source RPMs, etc.
/usr/X11R6 The X Window System.
/var Variable data: mail and printer spools, log files, lock files, etc.

3.2 Commands for Navigating the Linux Filesystems
The first thing you usually want to do when learning about the Linux filesystem is take some time to look around and see what's there! These next few commands will:
a) Tell you where you are, b) take you somewhere else, and c) show you what's there. The following table describes the basic operation of the pwd, cd, and ls commands, and compares them to certain DOS commands that you might already be familiar with.

Linux Command DOS Command Description
pwd cd “Print Working Directory”. Shows the current location in the directory tree.
cd cd, chdir “Change Directory”. When typed all by itself, it returns you to your home directory.
cd directory cd directory Change into the specified directory name.

Example: cd /usr/src/linux
cd ~ “~” is an alias for your home directory. It can be used as a shortcut to your “home”, or other
directories relative to your home.

cd .. cd.. Move up one directory. For example, if you are in /home/vic and you type “cd ..”, you will end up in /home.
cd - Return to previous directory. An easy way to get back to your previous location!
ls dir /w List all files in the current directory, in column format.
ls directory dir directory List the files in the specified directory.
Example: ls /var/log
ls -l dir List files in “long” format, one file per line. This also shows you additional info about the file, such as ownership, permissions, date, and size.
ls -a dir /a List all files, including “hidden” files. Hidden files are those files that begin with a “.”, e.g. The .bash_history file in your home directory.
ls -ld directory
A “long” list of “directory”, but instead of showing the directory contents, show the directory's detailed information. For example, compare the output of the following two commands:
ls -l /usr/bin
ls -ld /usr/bin
ls /usr/bin/d* dir d*.* List all files whose names begin with the letter “d”
in the /usr/bin directory.

>> Read more

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

Hyperledger Fabric Real Interview Questions Read Today

I am practicing Hyperledger. This is one of the top listed blockchains. This architecture follows R3 Corda specifications. Sharing the interview questions with you that I have prepared for my interview.

Though Ethereum leads in the real-time applications. The latest Hyperledger version is now ready for production applications. It has now become stable for production applications.
The Hyperledger now backed by IBM. But, it is still an open source. These interview questions help you to read quickly. The below set of interview questions help you like a tutorial on Hyperledger fabric. Hyperledger Fabric Interview Questions1). What are Nodes?
In Hyperledger the communication entities are called Nodes.

2). What are the three different types of Nodes?
- Client Node
- Peer Node
- Order Node
The Client node initiates transactions. The peer node commits the transaction. The order node guarantees the delivery.

3). What is Channel?
A channel in Hyperledger is the subnet of the main blockchain. You c…

Blue Prism complete tutorials download now

Blue prism is an automation tool useful to execute repetitive tasks without human effort. To learn this tool you need the right material. Provided below quick reference materials to understand detailed elements, architecture and creating new bots. Useful if you are a new learner and trying to enter into automation career.
The number one and most popular tool in automation is a Blue prism. In this post, I have given references for popular materials and resources so that you can use for your interviews.
RPA Blue Prism RPA blue prism tutorial popular resources I have given in this post. You can download quickly. Learning Blue Prism is a really good option if you are a learner of Robotic process automation.

RPA Advantages The RPA is also called "Robotic Process Automation"- Real advantages are you can automate any business process and you can complete the customer requests in less time.

The Books Available on Blue Prism 
Blue Prism resourcesDavid chappal PDF bookBlue Prism Blogs

PL/SQL: Popular Reserved Words

Perfect in PL/SQL is an art. To become this you need to understand top reserved words and their meanings. The below list is useful for your projects.


Top List of PL/SQL Reserved Words.. Before you start knowing reserved words, wait one moment. The reserved words all are similar to words that you use in normal SQL. ALL*DESC*ISOLATIONOUTSQLERRMALTER*DISTINCT*JAVAPACKAGESTART*AND*DOLEVEL*PARTITIONSTDDEVANY*DROP*LIKE*PCTFREE*SUBTYPEARRAYELSE*LIMITEDPLS_INTEGERSUCCESSFUL*AS*ELSIFLOCK*POSITIVESUMASC*ENDLONG*POSITIVENSYNONYM*AUTHIDEXCEPTIONLOOPPRAGMASYSDATE*AVGEXCLUSIVE*MAXPRIOR*TABLE*BEGINEXECUTEMINPRIVATETHEN*BETWEEN*EXISTS*MINUS*PROCEDURETIMEBINARY_INTEGEREXITMINUTEPUBLIC*TIMESTAMPINTEGEREXTENDSMLSLABEL*RAISE

Automation developer these are top Skills you need to learn

Robotic process automation is an upcoming IT skill. Three tools are popular. It is difficult to learn all three tool. So, learn anyone tool to start your career in automation.
To get a job in this line, I found in my research that some programming skills and Hand-on training on any one of the tools is required. Also, try to know the differences between popular RPA tools.
Skills Companies Looking in Automation Engineers All big companies looking for candidates having experience in Automation anywhere, Blue Prism and UIPath. It is not possible to learn all tools. Learn anyone tool and do practice well.

Ok.

You may ask a question about how to do it. Join in good training institute and learn one tool.  Take online classes to learn faster.

To learn Uipath try here. Also, you can enroll online course to learn UiPath.

UiPath GO The list of IT skills you needAutomation anywhere/Blue Prism/Uipath .Net/C#/Java/SQL skills MS-Visio Power Builder Python scripts/Unix Scripts/Perl Scripts HTML/CSS/J…

Three popular RPA tools functional differences

Robotic process automation is growing area and many IT developers across the board started up-skill in this popular area. I have written this post for the benefit of Software developers who are interested in RPA also called Robotic Process Automation.


In my previous post, I have described that total 12 tools are available in the market. Out of those 3 tools are most popular. Those are Automation anywhere, BluePrism and Uipath. Many programmers asked what are the differences between these tools. I have given differences of all these three RPA tools.

BluePrism Blue Prism has taken a simple concept, replicating user activity on the desktop, and made it enterprise strength. The technology is scalable, secure, resilient, and flexible and is supported by a comprehensive methodology, operational framework and provided as packaged software.The technology is developed and deployed within a “corridor of IT governance” and has sophisticated error handling and process modelling capabilities to ens…

8 Top Data Science Platform Developers in the World

Top data science tools and platforms providers across the world. Useful information for data science and data analytics developers.

Data Science is a combination of multiple skills. AI and Machine Learning are part of data science. You can create AI and Machine Learning products with data. 

Related Posts

Top Skills You Need for Data Science CareerData Science Sample Project an Example

Top 100 Hadoop Complex Interview Questions (Part 3 of 4)

These are complex Hadoop interview questions. This is my 3rd set of questions useful for your interviews. 1). What are the features of Standalone (local) mode? Ans). In stand-alone mode there are no daemons, everything runs on a single JVM. It has no DFS and utilizes the local file system. Stand-alone mode is suitable only for running MapReduce programs during development. It is one of the least used environments.

2). What are the features of Pseudo mode?
Ans). The pseudo mode is used both for development and in the QA environment. In the Pseudo mode, all the daemons run on the same machine.

3). Can we call VMs as pseudos?
Ans). No, VMs are not pseudos because VM is something different and pseudo is very specific to Hadoop.

4). What are the features of Fully Distributed mode?

Ans). The fully Distributed mode is used in the production environment, where we have ‘n’ number of machines forming a Hadoop cluster. Hadoop daemons run on a cluster of machines. There is one host onto which Namenod…

Tokenization story you need Vault based Vs Vault-less

The term tokenization refers to create a numeric or alphanumeric number in place of the original card number. It is difficult for hackers to get original card numbers.

Vault-Tokenization is a concept a Vault server create a new Token for each transaction when Customer uses Credit or Debit Card at Merchant outlets 
Let us see an example,  data analysis. Here, card numbers masked with other junk characters for security purpose.

Popular Tokenization ServersThere are two kinds of servers currently popular for implementing tokenization.
Vault-based Vault-less Video Presentation on Tokenization
Vault-based server The term vault based means both card number and token will be stored in a Table usually Teradata tables. During increasing volume of transactions, the handling of Table is a big challenge.
Every time during tokenization it stores a record for each card and its token. When you used a card multiple times, each time it generates multiple tokens. It is a fundamental concept.
So the challe…