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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

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SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

Human Intelligence Vs Artificial Intelligence

What is artificial intelligence
What is artificial intelligence

Key differences of Human and Artificial Intelligence

Human Intelligence: A leading researcher in human intelligence, suggests ``as a heuristic hypothesis'' that all normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are related to ``quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions''.

I see them as speed, short term memory, and the ability to form accurate and retrievable long term memories.

Artificial Intelligence: Computer programs have plenty of speed and memory but their abilities correspond to the intellectual mechanisms that program designers understand well enough to put in programs. Some abilities that children normally don't develop till they are teenagers may be in, and some abilities possessed by two year olds are still out.

The matter is further complicated by the fact that the cognitive sciences still have not succeeded in determining exactly what the human abilities are. Very likely the organization of the intellectual mechanisms for AI can usefully be different from that in people.

Whenever people do better than computers on some task or computers use a lot of computation to do as well as people, this demonstrates that the program designers lack understanding of the intellectual mechanisms required to do the task efficiently.

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