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The Quick and Easy Way to Analyze Numpy Arrays

The quickest and easiest way to analyze NumPy arrays is by using the numpy.array() method. This method allows you to quickly and easily analyze the values contained in a numpy array. This method can also be used to find the sum, mean, standard deviation, max, min, and other useful analysis of the value contained within a numpy array. Sum You can find the sum of Numpy arrays using the np.sum() function.  For example:  import numpy as np  a = np.array([1,2,3,4,5])  b = np.array([6,7,8,9,10])  result = np.sum([a,b])  print(result)  # Output will be 55 Mean You can find the mean of a Numpy array using the np.mean() function. This function takes in an array as an argument and returns the mean of all the values in the array.  For example, the mean of a Numpy array of [1,2,3,4,5] would be  result = np.mean([1,2,3,4,5])  print(result)  #Output: 3.0 Standard Deviation To find the standard deviation of a Numpy array, you can use the NumPy std() function. This function takes in an array as a par

Tokenization: Vault based Vs Vault-less

Tokenization means generating a random number as an alternative for a Credit card (PAN) number. The random number can be Numeric/Non-numeric. It is in such a format that others cannot decode it.   
The popular tokenization server is the Vault server. It generates a random Token for each transaction customer made at Merchant outlets. You can find how card numbers are masked with junk characters in the pdf provided. Here is the Visa Security Tokenization Pdf.

Vault vs Vault-less

Two Top Tokenization Servers.

  1. Vault based server
  2. Vault-less server

    What is Tokenization?

    1. Vault based server

    It stores a Card number (PAN) and a Token in a Table of the Teradata database as Key and value pairs. Due to the growing volume of transactions, the handling of the database became a big challenge for acquirers. 

    For each transaction, the vault server stores a record. That row contains both the Credit card number and its Token. When you use the same card multiple times, it generates different Tokens.  It is the basic concept of any Token server.  

    The tokenization process

    2. Vault-less Server.

    The Vault-less server is much faster. It generates random numbers based on the Split-algorithm logic. So decoding is harder. For each credit card transaction, it generates a new token.

    Moreover, it does not store card numbers and tokens. It generates both numeric or alphanumeric Tokens. Here is the list of top differences between the Vault and Vaultless servers.

    The principle behind this is to generate a random number and send it out.


    1. Hello Srini

      Just read your article on vault -v- vaultless, this question can only be answered depending on the vault itself - was it built to be scalable? Does it store every transaction? Quite simply no it does not, but like i say it all depends on how the vault was built. Is it more secure than vaultless - definately.

      1. Vault-less is reversible security method that replaces sensitive data with fake data that looks and feels just like the real thing. So vault-less is advanced than Vault.


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