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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

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SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

Calculate Circle Area the Logic You Need to write in Python

In Python, you can calculate the circle area easily by using the function. The purpose of Python is to use in data analysis.

Calculate circle area in Python using function. The logic you need given for your projects.


You need this logic in many areas. You can use in your present finance projects or new ones. Benefits of function you can re-use the same code number of times.

       
         Area of Circle=pi*r*r       
 


Area of Circle Steps Given - You Can do Using Two Methods, Explained Both Methods

I have given steps to calculate the area of a circle using two different methods. First I followed by creating a user-defined function. Next, directly I ran the formula in the interpreter.
 


Method -1

Steps I have followed to Calculate Area Using Function

  1. Logged into Cent Os (Linux)
  2. Create .py module
  3. Import .py module into Python
  4. Execute .py module

 1. Log in

I have first logged into CentOS. You can see there '$'.

login centos

2. Creating .py module

  • To create ".py" module. You can use the vi editor command.
  • You need 'import decimal' to get Decimal values. Else you will get the only integer.

py module

I have given the PWD command. Which tells the present working directory. There you can give ls command. You can see the list of .py modules. Here, you can see two kinds of modules. Those are .py and .pyc.

The .py is our module, which contains a function to calculate the Circle area. The .pyc module is a Python compiled module that will store in the same directory. When you first import the module in Python, the " .Pyc" module will create by Python.

list of modules

3. Importing the Module from Operating system


  • You need to first go to Python using Python command. There, you can give an import module-name.
  • During import .py for the module extension not required.

import module

 4. Execute Function with Circle area

You can pass a value to function to get the area of a circle.

result circle area

The value is rounded to 2 digits. I used round() function.

Bottom Line

Steps I used explained to calculate the area using the function. In a similar way you can calculate areas for:

  1. Rectangle area
  2. Circle perimeter

Method -2

How to calculate Circle area using the command line

You can give values directly in the Circle area formula to get area.

command line circle area

       
>>> import decimal
>>> from decimal import Decimal
>>>> Decimal(22)/Decimal(7)*10*10
 
 
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