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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

How to Check If Statement Multiple Conditions in Python and Ensure Tidy Code

Here're examples for Python multiple if conditions (statements). These are useful for interviews and projects. Many programmers confuse to write IF logic in Python. Below examples useful for your quick reference.

Python IF Statements Multiple Conditions Examples

Multiple IF Conditions

  1. IF, IF
  2. IF 'ELSE'
  3. IF 'or'
  4. IF 'and'
  5. Nested IF
  6. IF 'continue'
  7. IF 'break'

In Python, the decision-making logic you can write with IF condition. You can write multiple IF conditions (Single way decision). At the same time, you can write IF and ELSE conditions (Two-way decision).

Multiple IF conditions the best example.

def main(): 
       celsius = float(input("What is the Celsius temperature? ")) 
       fahrenheit = 9/5 * celsius + 32 
       print("The temperature is", fahrenheit, "degrees Fahrenheit.")
 # Print warnings for extreme temps 
     if fahrenheit > 90: 
          print("It's really hot out there. Be careful!") 
     if fahrenheit < 30: 
          print("Brrrrr. Be sure to dress warmly!")

Note:  Writing IF conditions like this we call it a Single way of Decision. 

IF-Else condition the best example.

def main(): 
      print("This program finds the real solutions to a quadratic\n") 
      a = float(input("Enter coefficient a: ")) 
      b = float(input("Enter coefficient b: ")) 
      c = float(input("Enter coefficient c: ")) 
      discrim = b * b - 4 * a * c 
     if discrim < 0: 
          print("\nThe equation has no real roots!") 
         discRoot = math.sqrt(b * b - 4 * a * c) 
         root1 = (-b + discRoot) / (2 * a) 
         root2 = (-b - discRoot) / (2 * a) 
         print("\n The solutions are:", root1, root2

Note: Writing IF conditions like this we call it Two way of Decision.


Nested IF condition the best example.

if condition:
	if condition:

IF Continue condition the best example.

Notes: 'Continue' just continue the next iteration of the loop.

>>> for num in range(2, 10):
...     if num % 2 == 0:
...         print "Found an even number", num
...         continue
...     print "Found a number", num
Found an even number 2

IF break conditions the best example.

>>> for n in range(2, 10):
...     for x in range(2, n):
...         if n % x == 0:
...             print n, 'equals', x, '*', n/x
...             break
...     else:
...         # loop fell through without finding a factor
...         print n, 'is a prime number'

IF True Best Example.

flag = True
if flag:

IF 'and' the Best Example.

if((a>b and a>c) and (a != b and a != c)): 
    print(a, " is the largest") 
elif((b>a and b>c) and (b != a and b != c)): 
    print(b, " is the largest") 
elif((c>a and c>b) and (c != a and c != b)): 
    print(c, " is the largest") 
    print("entered numbers are equal"

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