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8 Ways to Optimize AWS Glue Jobs in a Nutshell

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  Improving the performance of AWS Glue jobs involves several strategies that target different aspects of the ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) process. Here are some key practices. 1. Optimize Job Scripts Partitioning : Ensure your data is properly partitioned. Partitioning divides your data into manageable chunks, allowing parallel processing and reducing the amount of data scanned. Filtering : Apply pushdown predicates to filter data early in the ETL process, reducing the amount of data processed downstream. Compression : Use compressed file formats (e.g., Parquet, ORC) for your data sources and sinks. These formats not only reduce storage costs but also improve I/O performance. Optimize Transformations : Minimize the number of transformations and actions in your script. Combine transformations where possible and use DataFrame APIs which are optimized for performance. 2. Use Appropriate Data Formats Parquet and ORC : These columnar formats are efficient for storage and querying, signif

13 Tricky Kubernetes Os Interview Questions

THE tricky interview questions will simplify your job search - the listed questions are in the order of basic to midlevel skills. Kubernetes is an operating system built to work on Linux distributions for the sole purpose of Kubernetes Cluster.

13  Tricky Kubernetes Os Interview Questions
Kubernetes


13 Tricky Kubernetes Interview Questions.


These interview questions help you to recap before the interviews. Also, you can use this knowledge for your projects.



1. What is Kubernetes?


Kubernetes is OS (operating system) on the cloud, which oversees the cloud-native containerized apps. It is an orchestrator, which takes care of cloud apps - updates, rollback, scale-up, scale down, maintenance, etc.


2. What are Cloud-native apps?


These run on the cloud, which means on any cloud - private, public, hybrid. They also run in an on-premise datacenter.


The right answer is- applications designed and written in such a way that scale up or scale down as demand rises or fallen.


3. What are Containerized apps?


Containers, which have images of apps, The beauty of containerizations is portability. You can deploy on any cloud.


4. What is the background of Kubernetes?


Google developed the Kubernetes for its cloud use - written in Golang. In 2014, Google handed over this to CNCF (cloud-native computing foundation). Since then, it has become open-source.


5. What is the prime difference between Docker and Kubernetes?


Docker is, wherein you can create packages - packages to containers. In simple terms, Docker is a container manager wherein port applications to different regions - unit testing, integration testing, etc. 


In the cloud, you need a manager for containers. That is Kubernetes. Its role is to manage the containers deployed on the cloud.


Prime difference between Docker and Kubernetes?



6. What are the three basic things you can find in Kubernetes?


  1. Masters
  2. Nodes
  3. Apps (packaged in the form of a Container and wrapped in a Pod)


7. What is Masters in Kubernetes?


It is a control panel, 3 or 4 high available masters present in production Kubernetes apps. These Masters manage the Kubernetes-cluster nodes.


8. What are the nodes in Kubernetes?


The nodes are workers. Who is responsible for the Control pane (Masters). Also, they execute the work assigned by Masters and give feedback.


9. What are Apps in Kubernetes?


The Apps, which are developed by individual clients, deploy to the cloud in the form of packaged containers. Kubernetes will take care of these to run on the cloud as needed.


10. What are the three components of Nodes?


Those are Kubelet, Container run-time, Kube-proxy.


11. What is the desired-state?


While deploying apps, you need to define the desired state in the Kubernetes. When the App state changes, the Kubernetes will correct it.


12. What is Pod?


A Pod holds one or more containers of Apps. It is superior in terms of Kubernetes - in Vmware world, VM, and in Docker's world, Container.


13. What is the virtualization of Pods?


In the Kubernetes world, Pods will virtualize based on demand or fall.



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