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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

Python - How to Lookup Dictionary by Key

Here's Python Dictionary that explained how to lookup it using Key. Dictionary in Python is Key/Value pair. It's different from the list. The basic rule to identify; is enclosed in flower brackets ({}). Here's a demo about lookup and how to test it. 

Dictionary = { 'key' : 'value', 'key: value'  }  

Dictionary Lookup


  1. Python Dictionary
  2. Python Lookup
  3. How to check Lookup working or not



my_dict = {'name' : 'srini' , 'salary' : '100000', 'skills' : 'python' }

Here, 'name' is the label.

Then, :

Then, 'srini' -> Value

  • Data is enclosed in flower brackets
  • It's an unordered list
  • You can manipulate data (mutable)
  • You can access the value of a particular key. So, in Python, it's called a Lookup. It's one of the best interview questions.

Lookup Dictionary by Key

Python Lookup (a.k.a Dictionary). You can access data quickly. It's really super-speed. 


The result will be: 'srini'

  • You should use square brackets ([]) to get lookup data
  • Use key-value in square brackets ([]) with a single quote, you will get value

Output from Lookup

I am now adding new value to the Lookup.

>>> my_dict['role'] = 'Manager'

Now, the my_dict will'be :

>>> my_dict = {'name' : 'srini' , 'salary' : '100000', 'skills' : 'python' , 'role' : 'Manager'}

  • The order of assignmenet will not match with actula storing in Python
  • The order of Key/Value storage is taken care by interpreter



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