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SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

How to Count Vowels in Input Quickly

Here you'll know how python counts characters in the input. This is an interview question asked recently.

How to Count Vowels in Input Quickly


How to Count Vowels in Input String


Below is the Interview Question

Vowels = ('aeiou')

You need to check any vowels are present in the input string. Vowels means 'a', 'e', 'i', 'o', 'u'. The below function checks each character of input and compares it with the Vowels.

3 Steps to Count Vowels in Input


You can achieve this in three steps.

1. Create a function called 'my_vowel' (the name up to you)
2. Use Set & Intersection Method
3. Run the function

1. Created 'my_vowel' Function


#!usr/bin/python
#This function finds vowel counts
#welcome to my function
""" Optional description """
def my_vowel(a):
    vowels=set('aeiou')
    a_1= vowels.intersection(set(a))
# initialized the dictionary
    found = {'a' : 0, 'e' : 0, 'i' : 0, 'o' :, 'u' : 0}
    for indx in a_1:
        if indx in vowels:
            found[indx] += 1
     for k, v sorted(found.items():
        print(k,v)






I used vim editor to create a .py module with the name vowel.py. Below is the actual code.


Logic to count vowels in input


2. Used Set & Intersection Methods

- Set method converts the input string as a set (you aware about this in mathes)

- Intersect method extracts each character and compares it with a Dictionary (that I'have already defined).

- I used the IF condition to work this logic correctly and validate each character.


3. Result

I have imported the .py module to Python3. Then, I have supplied an input string. It is then validated and given the counts.

The result says, in the given string the vowels are like this:
a -> 0
e -> 1
i -> 0
o -> 1
u -> 0

using function counting of vowels


Bottom-line

  • As expected in the result we got counts for matching vowels.
  • It's very tricky and asked in most of the interviews
  • Test your function with various strings and improve your knowledge.

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