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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

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SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

Text Vs. Binary Vs. UTF-8 Top differences

Here are the differences between Text files, Binary files, and UTF-8. These would help understanding files correctly for beginners.


Text Vs. Binary Vs. UTF-8


Text File

  • It contains plain text characters. When you open a text file in a text editor, it displays human-readable content. 
  • The text may not be in a language you know or understand, but you will see mostly normal characters that you can type at any keyboard.

Binary File

  • It stores information in bytes that aren’t quite so human readable. 
  • If you open the binary file in a text editor, it will not be readable.

UTF-8

  • UTF-8 is short for Unicode Transformation Format, 8-bit, and is a standardized way to represent letters and numbers on computers.
  • The original ASCII set of characters, which contains mostly uppercase and lowercase letters, numbers, and punctuation marks, worked okay in the early days of computing. But when other languages were brought into the mix, these characters were just not enough. Many standards for dealing with other languages have been proposed and accepted over the years. Of those, UTF-8 has steadily grown in use whereas most others declined.
  • Today, UTF-8 is pretty much the standard for all things Internet, and so it's a good choice if you have to choose a character set for a project.

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