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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

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SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

The Exclusive Way to Declare Variables in Oracle Procedure

Declare record type variables in PLSQL

There are four data types in PLSQL. Those are Numeric, Char, Boolean, and Date/Time. Each data type and its features are demonstrated. And explained how to declare variables in PLSQL procedure.

Data types

Here are the four popular data types in PLSQL.

1. Numeric


DEC, DECIMAL, and NUMERIC are used to declare fixed-point numbers with a precision of a maximum of 38 decimal digits. INTEGER, INT, and SMALLINT declare integers with a maximum precision of 38 digits.

2. Char


Char and Varchar data types support storing data of 1 t0 2000 bytes. The VARCHAR2 supports 1 to 4000 bytes of data. The VARCHAR and VARCHAR2 release the unused space in memory,

 3. Date/Time


The range for the Date is from 01-Jan-4712 BC to 31-DEC-9999. It stores the data in date format DD-MON-YYYY. The value is written in single quotes.

4. Boolean


BOOLEAN datatype stores logical values and can be either TRUE or FALSE.

Declare variables


The Declare block in PL/SQL is reserved for variable declaration. The code between begin and end blocks will participate in the execution.


PL/SQL variable-declaration


DECLARE

A NUMBER(4,1) := 11.2; B PLS_INTEGER:=78; C NUMBER(2) :=11; D CHAR(1) :='P'; E varchar (4):='GOOD'; V1 CHAR (1):='T'; D1 DATE:='01-01-2020'; -- Displays current date D2 DATE:=SYSDATE;
BEGIN

Dbms_output.put_line('A:'||' '|| A ); Dbms_output.put_line('B:'||' '|| B); Dbms_output.NEW_LINE; Dbms_output.put_line('C:'||' '|| C); Dbms_output.put_line ('D:'||' '|| D); Dbms_output.NEW_LINE; Dbms_output.put_line('D1' ||CHR(9) ||'Today's DATE '); Dbms_output.put_line(D1|| CHR(9) || D2); Dbms_output.put_line ('V1:'||' '|| V1);
END;

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