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  Improving the performance of AWS Glue jobs involves several strategies that target different aspects of the ETL (Extract, Transform, Load) process. Here are some key practices. 1. Optimize Job Scripts Partitioning : Ensure your data is properly partitioned. Partitioning divides your data into manageable chunks, allowing parallel processing and reducing the amount of data scanned. Filtering : Apply pushdown predicates to filter data early in the ETL process, reducing the amount of data processed downstream. Compression : Use compressed file formats (e.g., Parquet, ORC) for your data sources and sinks. These formats not only reduce storage costs but also improve I/O performance. Optimize Transformations : Minimize the number of transformations and actions in your script. Combine transformations where possible and use DataFrame APIs which are optimized for performance. 2. Use Appropriate Data Formats Parquet and ORC : These columnar formats are efficient for storage and querying, signif

How to Use Arguments in Real Python Programs

Here are four types of exclusive arguments in python. The arguments are passers to functions. These are Required arguments, Keyword arguments, Default arguments and Variable-length arguments.


argument types in python


Here're 4 Important Arguments in Python


The arguments supply input to functions. Because these are various types, herein you will know the details and usage of those types.

Argument#1: Required arguments


Positional arguments are known as required arguments and are passed to a function in the correct order. The arguments in the function call should match the number in the function definition.


Sample program:


def cal(a,b):
    """program to calculate sum of 2 numbers"""
    sum=a+b
    return sum
a=int(input("enter 1st number"))
b=int(input("enter 2nd number"))
print(cal(a,b))


Output


enter 1st number
10
enter 2nd number
22
32


** Process exited - Return Code: 0 **
Press Enter to exit terminal


Argument#2: Keyword arguments


A default argument is an argument that assumes a default value if a value is not provided in the function call for that argument.

The user may not want to provide values for some parameters for some functions, so you may want to make them optional and use default values. Default argument values are used to accomplish this. Add the assignment operator (=) followed by the default value to the parameter name in the function definition if you want to specify default argument values for parameters.

A constant value should be used for the default argument; it should be an immutable value by default.


Sample program:


def cal(a,b=20):
"""program to calculate sum of 2 numbers"""
sum=a+b
return sum
a=10
b=12
print(cal(a,b))
print(cal(a))


Output


22
30


** Process exited - Return Code: 0 **
Press Enter to exit terminal


Argument#3: Default arguments


Arguments related to function calls are known as keyword arguments. In function calls, parameter names are used to identify keyword arguments.

If you have some functions with many parameters and only want to specify some of them, you can call them keyword arguments.



Sample program:

def cal(a,b):
"""program to calculate sum of 2 numbers"""
sum=a+b
return sum
print(cal(a=12,b=24)) # 2 keyword argument
print(cal(b=24,a=12)) # 2 keyword argument(out of order)
print(cal(24,b=4)) # 1 positional, 1 keyword


print(cal(a=22,12))


Output


File "main.py", line 9
print(cal(a=22,12))
^
SyntaxError: positional argument follows keyword argument


** Process exited - Return Code: 1 **
Press Enter to exit terminal


Argument#4: Variable-length arguments


They are also known as variable length arguments. In some cases, we do not know in advance how many arguments will be passed to a function. This kind of a situation can be handled in Python through function calls with arbitrary arguments. For this kind of an argument, we use an asterisk (*) before the parameter name in the function definition.

Sample program:

def display(arg1, *vartuple):
"Arbitrary arguments"
print ("Output is: ")
print (arg1)
for var in vartuple:
print (var)
return
display(34)
display(10,20,30,40)


Output

Output is:
34
Output is:
10
20
30
40

** Process exited - Return Code: 0 **
Press Enter to exit terminal

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