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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

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SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

The Amazing Points on IoT for Absolute Beginners

How things are connected in the IoT world. IT jobs are growing in this area across the world. Earlier, we discussed how the IoT refers to the interconnection of distinguishable smart/intelligent objects or "things" and their virtual manifestation within the Internet or other IP structure.

The Basics in IoT

The increased capability of processors (8-, 16- or 32-bit microcontrollers), memory (several tens of kilobytes), storage, possible nowadays to connect anything at an affordable cost.

IoT Devices

  • The devices always may not be small objects and battery operated. They may be big and are operated with electrical power too.
  • The smart objects connected to a grid, and where the control system connected to a pool of software controllers. The generated data is a huge asset, which then passed to the data analysis engine.

IP Scalability

  1. The scalability and flexibility of IP are suitable for the diverse range and a potential number of applications, and it is its well-established architecture, with existing applications for email, Voice over IP (VoIP), video streaming, and so on, that affords the protocol its robust and adaptable usage. 
  2. The IP stack has been regarded as large and perhaps cumbersome, requiring high amounts of processing power and memory.

New Generation Protocols

  • However, several lightweight revisions have emerged to accommodate smaller devices and lower energy footprints. Furthermore, the lightweight nature of the new generation IP stack has allowed itself to be used in conjunction with other protocols, such as low power Wi-Fi, ZigBee, and Bluetooth low energy. 
  • Since IP can run over almost anything, adapting the stack to run over ZigBee or Bluetooth low energy, for example, is a relatively straightforward task, as we highlight in Figure 6.3. As can be seen in the figure, a 6loWPAN adaptation layer is used cohesively to allow both ZigBee and Bluetooth low energy to coexist with the upper layers of the IP stack, namely IPv6 and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) /Transmission Control Protocol (TCP).

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