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SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

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SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

Python Function Argument: How to Pass it to Decorator

A decorator is a wrapper and provides additional functionality to a function. Also, it may modify the behavior, such as changing the return type/adding new abilities.


Python Decorators



Python Decorators


Precisely, it is another form of function pointers. Also, it accepts function argument, then either wraps the function or returns a new one. Moreover, it modifies the inputs/outputs supplied to it. It helps you add behavior to functions (objects) dynamically (without changing the function behavior).

Function Argument

Below, you will find an example of passing a function argument to a decorator. The below function modifies inputs and returns output.

def to_upper(func):
    text=func()
    if isinstance(text,str):
        return text.upper()

def say():
    return "welcome"

def hello():
    return "hello"
    
a = to_upper(say)
print(a) 

b = to_upper(hello)
print(b)  


Output


WELCOME
HELLO


** Process exited - Return Code: 0 **
Press Enter to exit terminal

References

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