Featured Post

SQL Query: 3 Methods for Calculating Cumulative SUM

Image
SQL provides various constructs for calculating cumulative sums, offering flexibility and efficiency in data analysis. In this article, we explore three distinct SQL queries that facilitate the computation of cumulative sums. Each query leverages different SQL constructs to achieve the desired outcome, catering to diverse analytical needs and preferences. Using Window Functions (e.g., PostgreSQL, SQL Server, Oracle) SELECT id, value, SUM(value) OVER (ORDER BY id) AS cumulative_sum  FROM your_table; This query uses the SUM() window function with the OVER clause to calculate the cumulative sum of the value column ordered by the id column. Using Subqueries (e.g., MySQL, SQLite): SELECT t1.id, t1.value, SUM(t2.value) AS cumulative_sum FROM your_table t1 JOIN your_table t2 ON t1.id >= t2.id GROUP BY t1.id, t1.value ORDER BY t1.id; This query uses a self-join to calculate the cumulative sum. It joins the table with itself, matching rows where the id in the first table is greater than or

How to Read CSV file Data in Python

Here is a way to read CSV files in Python pandas. The packages you need to import are numpy and pandas. On the flip side, for Text files, you don't need to import these special libraries since python by default support it.



pandas read_csv


Python pandas read_csv


>>> import numpy as np
>>> import pandas as pd


To see how pandas handle this kind of data, we'll create a small CSV file in the working directory as ch05_01.csv.

white, red, blue, green, animal
1,5,2,3,cat 
2,7,8,5,dog 
3,3,6,7,horse 
2,2,8,3,duck 
4,4,2,1,mouse


Since this file is comma-delimited, you can use the read_csv() function to read its content and convert it to a dataframe object.
>>> csvframe = pd.read_csv('ch05_01.csv')
>>> csvframe
   white  red  blue  green animal
0      1    5     2      3    cat
1      2    7     8      5    dog
2      3    3     6      7  horse
3      2    2     8      3   duck
4      4    4     2      1  mouse


Python reading text files


Since python supports text files, you don't need to import NumPy and Pandas. The syntax is a little different. 

Using the Open method, here file is opened with read mode. In the place file name, it has given; the full path of the file. The Print method displays contents. Here read method is used to read the file.

# Open our file in read mode 
f = open("data/flatland01.txt", mode="r") 
# Read and display the text file 
print(f.read())
# Close our file resource 
f.close()

Finally, working with CSV and Text files knowing is helpful for interviews.


Related

Comments

Popular posts from this blog

How to Fix datetime Import Error in Python Quickly

Explained Ideal Structure of Python Class

How to Check Kafka Available Brokers