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Scraping Website: How to Write a Script in Python

Here's a python script that you can use as a model to scrape a website. Python script The below logic uses BeautifulSoup Package for web scraping. import requests from bs4 import BeautifulSoup url = 'https://www.example.com' response = requests.get(url) soup = BeautifulSoup(response.text, 'html.parser') # Print the title of the webpage print(soup.title.text) # Print all the links in the webpage for link in soup.find_all('a'):     print(link.get('href')) In this script, we first import the Requests and Beautiful Soup libraries. We then define the URL we want to scrape and use the Requests library to send a GET request to that URL. We then pass the response text to Beautiful Soup to parse the HTML contents of the webpage. We then use Beautiful Soup to extract the title of the webpage and print it to the console. We also use a for loop to find all the links in the webpage and print their href attributes to the console. This is just a basic example, but

How to Decode Python Exception Messages Like a Pro

While developing python programs, you might see exception messages from python. Here's an explanation to understand each part of the message.

Here're tips on how to understand python exceptions. You can find two kinds of exceptions. These are StandardError and StopIteration errors. Here is a chart that shows the types of python errors.

Exception message

Python exceptions class


Python exceptions are basically three parts. Reading an error message produced by Python is not very difficult. The error type, the error description, and the traceback.

Understand the python exception message

The Error Type

There are so many in-built exception types in python. Here is the command to get all the exception types:

[x for x in dir(__builtins__) if 'Error' in x]

The Error description

The text message right after the error type gives us a description of what exactly the problem was. These descriptions are sometimes very accurate, sometimes not.

Sample error

Traceback (most recent call last): 
    File "load_tiles.py", line 32, in <module> wall = tiles['#'] 
KeyError: '#'

After the error type, there is only a # symbol, which means no clue even for Python.

The Traceback

The traceback contains accurate information where in the code an Exception happened. It contains the following:

  • A copy of the code is executed. Sometimes we spot the defect here immediately. Not this time.
  • The line number was executed when the error occurred. The defect must be in the line itself or in a line executed earlier.


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